Friday, October 14, 2016

Invitation of applications from Indian young students/researchers to participate in the Nobel Laureates meeting during 25-30 June 2017 at Lindau, Germany




Lindau, Germany

(25-30 June 2017)

(Dedicated to chemistry and closely related topics)

Each year since 1951, Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine have been meeting in Lindau, Germany, to discuss major issues of importance to their fields with students from around the world. The meetings include lectures, panel/ round-table discussions on interdisciplinary topics and informal small-group meetings with the Nobel Prize winners. The DST has been sending a group of students/ young researchers to these meetings, since 2001. It intended to send a group of Indian Students /young researchers to the 67th Meeting of Nobel Laureates & Students during 25-30 June 2017, which is dedicated to Chemistry and Closely related topics. Applications are invited from bright and young students and researchers in Chemistry for availing this award. The lectures and discussions are at a level appropriate for students/researchers in their early research careers. More details of the meeting can be seen at

Last date to Apply: 30th November 2016

Thursday, October 13, 2016

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016 was awarded to 

Bob Dylan 

"for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".


Biobibliographical Notes

Bob Dylan was born on May 24, 1941 in Duluth, Minnesota. He grew up in a Jewish middle-class family in the city of Hibbing. As a teenager he played in various bands and with time his interest in music deepened, with a particular passion for American folk music and blues. One of his idols was the folk singer Woody Guthrie. He was also influenced by the early authors of the Beat Generation, as well as by modernist poets.
Dylan moved to New York in 1961 and began to perform in clubs and cafés in Greenwich Village. He met the record producer John Hammond with whom he signed a contract for his debut album, called Bob Dylan (1962). In the following years he recorded a number of albums which have had a tremendous impact on popular music: Bringing It All Back Home and Highway 61 Revisited in 1965, Blonde On Blonde in 1966 and Blood On The Tracks in 1975. His productivity continued in the following decades, resulting in masterpieces like Oh Mercy (1989), Time Out Of Mind (1997) and Modern Times (2006).
Dylan’s tours in 1965 and 1966 attracted a lot of attention. For a period he was accompanied by film maker D. A. Pennebaker, who documented life around the stage in what would come to be the movie Dont Look Back (1967). Dylan has recorded a large number of albums revolving around topics like the social conditions of man, religion, politics and love. The lyrics have continuously been published in new editions, under the title Lyrics. As an artist, he is strikingly versatile; he has been active as painter, actor and scriptwriter.
Besides his large production of albums, Dylan has published experimental work like Tarantula (1971) and the collection Writings and Drawings (1973). He has written the autobiography Chronicles (2004), which depicts memories from the early years in New York and which provides glimpses of his life at the center of popular culture. Since the late 1980s, Bob Dylan has toured persistently, an undertaking called the “Never-Ending Tour”. Dylan has the status of an icon. His influence on contemporary music is profound, and he is the object of a steady stream of secondary literature.

Bibliography – a selection

Works in English
Bob Dylan Song Book. – New York : M. Witmark, 1965
Bob Dylan Himself : His Words, His Music. – London : Duchess, 1965
Bob Dylan : A Collection. – New York : M. Witmark, 1966
Bob Dylan : The Original. – Warner Bros.- Seven Arts Music, 1968
Tarantula. – New York : Macmillan, 1971
Poem to Joanie / with an introduction by A. J. Weberman. – London : Aloes Seola, 1971
Writings and Drawings. – New York : Knopf, 1973
The Songs of Bob Dylan : From 1966 through 1975. – New York : Knopf, 1976
Lyrics, 1962-1985. – New York : Knopf, 1985
Bob Dylan Anthology. – New York : Amsco, 1990
Drawn Blank. – New York : Random House, 1994
Lyrics, 1962-1996. – New York : Villard, 1997
Lyrics, 1962-1999. – New York : Knopf, 1999
Man Gave Names to All the Animals / illustrated by Scott Menchin. – San Diego, Calif. : Harcourt Brace, 1999
The Definitive Bob Dylan Songbook. – New York : Amsco, 2001
Lyrics : 1962-2001. – New York : Simon & Schuster, 2004
Chronicles : Volume One. – New York : Simon & Schuster, 2004
Bob Dylan : The Drawn Blank Series / edited by Ingrid Mössinger and Kerstin Drechsel. – New York : Prestel, 2007
Hollywood Foto-Rhetoric : The Lost Manuscript / photographs by Barry Feinstein. – New York : Simon & Schuster, 2008
Lyrics / edited by Heinrich Detering. – Stuttgart : Reclam, 2008
Forever Young / illustrated by Paul Rogers. – New York : Atheneum, 2008
Bob Dylan : The Brazil Series. – New York : Prestel, 2010
Man Gave Names to All the Animals / illustrated by Jim Arnosky. – New York : Sterling, 2010
Blowin’ in The Wind / illustrated by Jon J. Muth. – New York : Sterling, 2011
Bob Dylan : The Asia Series. – New York : Gagosian Gallery, 2011
Revisionist Art. – New York : Gagosian Gallery, 2012
Bob Dylan : Face Value / text by John Elderfield. – London : National Portrait Gallery, 2013
If Dogs Run Free / illustrated by Scott Campbell. – New York : Atheneum, 2013
The Lyrics : Since 1962 / edited by Christopher Ricks, Lisa Nemrow and Julie Nemrow. – New York : Simon & Schuster, 2014
If Not for You / illustrated by David Walker . – New York : Atheneum, 2016

Bob Dylan (1962) The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (1963) The Times They Are A-Changin' (1964) Another Side Of Bob Dylan (1964) Bringing It All Back Home (1965) Highway 61 Revisited (1965) Blonde On Blonde (1966) Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits (1967) John Wesley Harding (1968) Nashville Skyline (1969) Self Portrait (1970) New Morning (1970) Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits Vol. 2 (1971) Pat Garrett & Billy The Kid (1973) Dylan (1973) Planet Waves (1974) Before The Flood (1974) Blood On The Tracks (1975) The Basement Tapes (1975) Desire (1976) Hard Rain (1976) Street Legal (1978) Bob Dylan At Budokan (1978) Slow Train Coming (1979) Saved (1980) Shot Of Love (1981) Infidels (1983) Real Live (1984) Empire Burlesque (1985) Biograph (1985) Knocked Out Loaded (1986) Down In The Groove (1988) Dylan & The Dead (1989) Oh Mercy (1989) Under The Red Sky (1990) The Bootleg Series Vols. 1-3: Rare And Unreleased 1961-1991 (1991) Good As I Been to You (1992) World Gone Wrong (1993) Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits Vol. 3 (1994) MTV Unplugged (1995) The Best Of Bob Dylan (1997) The Songs Of Jimmie Rodgers: A Tribute (1997) Time Out Of Mind (1997) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 4: Bob Dylan Live 1966: The ’Royal Albert Hall’ Concert (1998) The Essential Bob Dylan (2000) ”Love And Theft” (2001) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 5: Live 1975: The Rolling Thunder Revue (2002) Masked And Anonymous: The Soundtrack (2003) Gotta Serve Somebody: The Gospel Songs Of Bob Dylan (2003) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 6: Live 1964: Concert At Philharmonic Hall (2004) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 7: No Direction Home: The Soundtrack (2005) Live At The Gaslight 1962 (2005) Live At Carnegie Hall 1963 (2005) Modern Times (2006) The Traveling Wilburys Collection (2007) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 8: Tell Tale Signs: Rare And Unreleased, 1989-2006 (2008) Together Through Life (2009) Christmas In The Heart (2009) The Original Mono Recordings (2010) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 9: The Witmark Demos: 1962-1964 (2010) Good Rockin’ Tonight: The Legacy Of Sun (2011) Timeless (2011) Tempest (2012) The Lost Notebooks Of Hank Williams (2011) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 10: Another Self Portrait (2013) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 11: The Basement Tapes Complete (2014) The Bootleg Series, Vol. 12: The Cutting Edge 1965-1966 (2015) Shadows In The Night (2015) Fallen Angels (2016)

Dont Look Back / D. A. Pennebaker, 1967 Eat the Document / D. A. Pennebaker, Howard Alk, Bob Dylan, 1971 Pat Garrett & Billy The Kid / Sam Peckinpah, 1973 Renaldo & Clara / Bob Dylan, 1978 The Last Waltz / Martin Scorsese, 1978 Hard to Handle / Gillian Armstrong, 1986 Hearts of Fire / Richard Marquand, 1987 Masked and Anonymous / Larry Charles ; written by Bob Dylan and Larry Charles, 2003 No Direction Home / Martin Scorsese, 2005 I’m Not There / Todd Haynes, 2007 The Other Side of the Mirror : Bob Dylan Live at the Newport Folk Festival, 1963-1965. / Murray Lerner, 2007

Works in French
Tarantula / traduit de l'anglais par Dashiell Hedayat. – Paris : C. Bourgois, 1972. – Traduction de: Tarantula
Écrits et dessins : "mars 1962-décembre 1970" / traduit de l'anglais par Robert Louit et Didier Pemerle. – Paris : Seghers, 1975. – Traduction de: Writings and Drawings
Tarantula / traduit de l'anglais par Daniel Bismuth. – Paris : Hachette, 2001. – Traduction de: Tarantula
Chroniques : volume I / traduit de l'anglais par Jean-Luc Piningre. – Paris : Fayard, 2005. – Traduction de: Chronicles : Volume One
Lyrics : chansons, 1962-2001 / traduit de l'anglais par Robert Louit et Didier Pemerle. – Paris : Fayard, 2008. – Traduction de: Lyrics, 1962-2001

Works in Spanish
Canciones / selección, traducción y prólogo de Eduardo Chamorro. – Madrid : Alberto Corazón, 1971
George Jackson y otras canciones / selección y traducción Antonio Resines. – Madrid : Alberto Corazón, 1972
Escritos, canciones y dibujos / traducción de Carlos Álvarez. – Madrid : R. Aguilera, 1975. – Título original: Writings and Drawings
Tarántula / traducción de Horacio Quinto. – Barcelona : Producciones Editoriales, 1976. – Título original: Tarantula
Canciones I / traducción de Carlos Álvarez. – Madrid : Fundamentos, 1984
Canciones II / traducción de Carlos Álvarez. – Madrid : Fundamentos, 1985
Bob Dylan : Greatest hits volume 3 : Unplugged / traducción de Alberto Manzano. – Madrid : Celeste, 1993
Tarántula / traducción de Ignacio Renom. – Madrid : Júcar, 1996. – Título original: Tarantula
Del huracán a las tierras altas : escritos y canciones, 1975-1997 / traducción de Antonio J. Iriarte y Francisco J. García Cubero. – Valencia : Mirada, 1999
Crónicas / traducción de Miquel Izquierdo. – Barcelona : Global Rhythm, 2005. – Título original: Chronicles : Volume One
Tarántula / traducción de Alberto Manzano. – Barcelona : Global Rhythm, 2007. – Título original: Tarantula
Bob Dylan : letras, 1962-2001 / traducción de Miquel Izquierdo y José Moreno. – Madrid : Global Rhythm : Alfaguara, 2007. – Título original: Lyrics : 1962-2001
Fotorretórica de Hollywood : el manuscrito perdido / fotografías de Barry Feinstein ; traducción de Miquel Izquierdo. – Barcelona : Global Rhythm, 2009. – Título original: Hollywood Foto-Rhetoric

Works in Swedish
Bob Dylan / översättning av Bruno K. Öijer och Eric Fylkeson ; illustrationer av Leif Elggren. – Stockholm : Poesiförlaget i samarbete med Cavefors, 1975
Tarantula / översättning av Görgen Antonsson. – Borås : Galder, 1981. – Originalets titel: Tarantula
Tarantula / översättning av Görgen Antonsson ; efterord av Peter Glas ; afterword by Peter Glas. – Lund : Bakhåll, 1999. – Originalets titel: Tarantula
Memoarer. D. 1 / översättning av Mats Gellerfelt. – Stockholm : Prisma, 2004. – Originalets titel: Chronicles : Volume One

Works in German
Texte und Zeichnungen / übersetzt von Carl Weissner. – Frankfurt am Main : Zweitausendeins, 1975. – Originaltitel: Writings and Drawings
Tarantel = Tarantula / übersetzt von Carl Weissner. – Frankfurt am Main : Zweitausendeins, 1976. – Originaltitel: Tarantula
Songtexte : 1962-1985 / übersetzt von Carl Weissner und Walter Hartmann. – Frankfurt am Main : Zweitausendeins, 1987. – Originaltitel: Lyrics 1962-1985
Tarantel / übersetzt von Carl Weissner ; herausgegeben von Wolfgang Smejkal. – St. Andrä-Wördern : Hannibal, 1995. – Originaltitel: Tarantula
Lyrics : 1962-2001 / übersetzt von Gisbert Haefs. – Hamburg : Hoffmann und Campe, 2004. – Originaltitel: Lyrics : 1962 – 2001
Chronicles. Vol. 1 / übersetzt von Kathrin Passig und Gerhard Henschel. – Hamburg : Hoffmann und Campe, 2004. – Originaltitel: Chronicles : Volume One
Lyrics / herausgegeben von Heinrich Detering. – Stuttgart : Reclam, 2008

Further reading
All Across the Telegraph : A Bob Dylan Handbook / edited by Michael Gray and John Bauldie. – London : Sidgwick & Jackson, 1987
Baez, Joan, And a Voice to Sing With : A Memoir. – New York : Summit, 1987
Bauldie, John, Wanted Man : In Search of Bob Dylan. – London : Black Spring Press, 1990
Bob Dylan : Dont Look Back : A Film and Book by D. A. Pennebaker. – New York : Ballantine, 1968
Bob Dylan : ein Kongreß ; Ergebnisse des Internationalen Bob Dylan-Kongresses 2006 in Frankfurt am Main / herausgegeben von Axel Honneth ... – Frankfurt am Main : Suhrkamp, 2007
Bob Dylan : A Retrospective / edited by Craig MacGregor. – New York : William Morrow, 1972
The Bob Dylan Companion: Four Decades of Commentary / edited by Carl Benson. – New York : Schirmer, 1998
Bob Dylan In His Own Words / compiled by Barry Miles ; edited by Pearce Marchbanks. – New York : Quick Fox, 1978
Braad Thomsen, Christian & Schnack, Asger, Bob Dylan : en guide til hans plader. – København : Høst & Søn, 1998
Bream, Jon, Dylan Disc by Disc. / introductions to the albums and liner notes by Richie Unterberger. – Minneapolis : Voyageur Press, 2015
The Cambridge Companion to Bob Dylan / edited by Kevin J. H. Dettmar. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2009
Dalton, David, Det är inte mig ni söker : jakten på Bob Dylan / översättning av Christian Ekvall. – Västerås : Ica, 2013. Orig. titel: Who Is That Man?
Detering, Heinrich, Bob Dylan / översättning av Jim Jakobsson. – Göteborg : Daidalos, 2008
Detering, Heinrich, Die Stimmen aus der Unterwelt : Bob Dylans Mysterienspiele. – München : Beck, 2016
Do You Mr Jones? : Bob Dylan with the Poets and Professors / edited by Neil Corcoran. – London : Chatto & Windus, 2002
Dylan, Bob, Younger Than That Now : The Collected Interviews with Bob Dylan. – New York : Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2004
Dylan on Dylan : The Essential Interviews / edited by Jonathan Cott. – London : Hodder & Stoughton, 2006
Dylan par Dylan : interviews 1962-2004 / édition établie par Jonathan Cott ; traduit de l'anglais par Denis Griesmar. – Paris : Bartillat, 2007. – Traduction de: Bob Dylan : The Essential Interviews
Dylan sobre Dylan : 31 entrevistas memorables / edición a cargo de Jonathan Cott ; traducción de Miquel Izquierdo. – Barcelona : Global Rhythm, 2008. – Traducción de: Dylan on Dylan : The Essential Interviews
Gray, Michael, The Bob Dylan Encyclopedia. – New York : Continuum, 2006 ; updated and revised version, 2008
Gray, Michael, Song and Dance Man III : The Art of Bob Dylan. – London : Cassell, 2000 [Revised version of: Song & Dance Man : The Art of Bob Dylan. – London : Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, 1972]
Harvey, Todd, The Formative Dylan : Transmission and Stylistic Influences 1961-1963. – Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 2001
Havers, Franz W., Bob Dylans surrealistische Songpoesie ; Thesis. – Frankfurt am Main : P. Lang, 1986
Heylin, Clinton, Behind the Shades Revisited. – New York : William Morrow, 2001
Heylin, Clinton, Bob Dylan : Behind the Shades : A Biography. – New York : Summit, 1991
Heylin, Clinton, Bob Dylan : A Life in Stolen Moments : Day by Day 1941-1995. – New York : Schirmer, 1996
Heylin, Clinton, Bob Dylan : The Recording Sessions 1960-1994. – New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1995
Heylin, Clinton, Dylan : Mannen, myten, musiken : En biografi / översättning av Håkan Olsson. – Lund : Wiken, 1993. – Originaltitel : Dylan : Behind the Shades
Heylin, Clinton, Revolution in the Air : The Songs of Bob Dylan 1957-1973. – Chicago IL. : Chicago Review Press, 2009
Heylin, Clinton, Still on the Road : The Songs of Bob Dylan 1974-2006. – Chicago, IL. : Chicago Review Press, 2010
Holmgren, Ola, Stickspår : Åtta skäl varför Bob Dylan borde tilldelas Nobelpriset i litteratur. – Stockholm : Carlsson, 2016
Holmquist, Göran, Bob Dylan på svenska : Bob Dylans betydelse för svensk musik & litteratur : en studie. – Gammelstad : Hjärnstorm, 1982
Holmquist, Göran, Visa oss vinden! : Bob Dylan i Sverige. – Stockholm : Premium, 2002
Jacobsson, Mats, Dylan i 60-talet : tematiken i Bob Dylans sångtexter och dikter 1961-67. – Lund : Ellerström, 2004
Jørgensen, Karsten, Bob Dylan lexikon / översättning av Thomas Nydahl. – Kristianstad : Accent, 2003. – Originaltitel: Bob Dylan leksikon
Marcus, Greil, Invisible Republic : Bob Dylan’s Basement Tapes. – New York : H. Holt & Co, 1997
Marcus, Greil, Like a Rolling Stone : Bob Dylan at the Crossroads. – London : Faber & Faber, 2006
Margotin, Philippe & Jean-Michel Guesdon, Bob Dylan : la totale : les 492 chansons expliquées. – Vanves : Chêne, 2015
Marshall, Lee, Bob Dylan : The Never Ending Star. – Cambridge : Polity, 2007
Medcalf, Lawrence Donald, The Rhetoric of Bob Dylan, 1963-1966 ; Thesis. – Indiana University, 1978
Myhr, Petter Fiskum, Bob Dylan : jeg er en annan. – Oslo : Historie & Kultur, 2011
Refractions of Bob Dylan : Cultural Appropriations of an American Icon / edited by Eugen Banauch. – Manchester : Manchester University Press, 2015
Rem, Håvard, Bob Dylan. – Oslo : Gyldendal, 1999
Ricks, Christopher B., Dylan's Visions of Sin. – London : Viking, 2003
Santelli, Robert, The Bob Dylan Scrapbook : 1956-1966. – New York : Simon & Schuster, 2005
Scaduto, Anthony, Bob Dylan. – New York : Grosset & Dunlap, 1971
Schmidt, Mathias R., Bob Dylans message songs der Sechziger Jahre und die anglo-amerikanische Tradition des sozialkritischen Liedes ; Thesis. – Frankfurt am Main : P. Lang, 1982
Scobie, Stephen, Alias Bob Dylan. – Red Deer, Alta. : Red Deer College Press, 1991
Scobie, Stephen, Alias Bob Dylan revisited. – Calgary : Red Deer Press, 2003
Shelton, Robert, No Direction Home : The Life and Music of Bob Dylan. – New York : Beech Tree, 1986 ; revised edition: Milwaukee : Backbeat, 2011
Snow, Craig R., Folksinger and Beat Poet : The Prophetic Vision of Bob Dylan ; Thesis. – Purdue University, 1987
Sounes, Howard, Down the Highway : The Life of Bob Dylan.– New York : Grove Press, 2001 ; updated edition 2011
Sounes, Howard, Dylan, Dylan, Dylan : biografin / översättning av Hans Björkegren. – Stockholm : Norstedt, 2001. – Orig. titel: Down the Highway : The Life of Bob Dylan

Spitz, Bob, Dylan : A Biography. – New York : McGraw-Hill, 1989
Tang, Jesper, Bob Dylan smiler!.– København : Borgen, 1972
Taylor, Jeff & Israelson, Chad, The Political World of Bob Dylan : Freedom and Justice, Power and Sin. – New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2015
Trager, Oliver, Keys to the Rain : The Definitive Bob Dylan Encyclopedia. – New York : Billboard, 2004
Wilentz, Sean, Bob Dylan in America. – New York : Doubleday, 2010
Williams, Paul, Performing Artist : The Music of Bob Dylan. – Novato, Calif. : Underwood-Miller, 1990
Williams, Paul, Performing Artist 1960-1973 : The Early Years. – Novato, Calif. : Underwood-Miller, 1991
Williams, Paul, Performing Artist 1974-1986 : The Middle Years. – Novato, Calif. : Underwood-Miller, 1992
Williams, Paul, Performing Artist 1986-1990 & Beyond : Mind Out Of Time. – London : Omnibus, 2004
Wissolik, Richard David, McGrath, Scott & Colaianne, A. J., Bob Dylan’s Words : A Critical Dictionary and Commentary. – Greensburg, PA : Eadmer Press, 1994
Yaffe, David, Bob Dylan : Like a Complete Unknown. – London : Yale University Press, 2011
Young, Izzy, The Conscience of the Folk Revival : The Writings of Israel ”Izzy” Young / edited by Scott Barretta. – Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 2013 

Source: "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016 - Bio-bibliography". Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 13 Oct 2016. <>

Friday, October 7, 2016

JOINT CSIR-UGC NET Exam June 2016 Result



 Click here to view result


Wednesday, October 5, 2016

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 to
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
University of Strasbourg, France

Sir J. Fraser Stoddart
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA

Bernard L. Feringa
University of Groningen, the Netherlands
"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"

They developed the world's smallest machines

A tiny lift, artificial muscles and miniscule motors. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 is awarded to Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa for their design and production of molecular machines. They have developed molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added.
The development of computing demonstrates how the miniaturisation of technology can lead to a revolution. The 2016 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry have miniaturised machines and taken chemistry to a new dimension.
The first step towards a molecular machine was taken by Jean-Pierre Sauvage in 1983, when he succeeded in linking two ring-shaped molecules together to form a chain, called a catenane. Normally, molecules are joined by strong covalent bonds in which the atoms share electrons, but in the chain they were instead linked by a freer mechanical bond. For a machine to be able to perform a task it must consist of parts that can move relative to each other. The two interlocked rings fulfilled exactly this requirement.
The second step was taken by Fraser Stoddart in 1991, when he developed a rotaxane. He threaded a molecular ring onto a thin molecular axle and demonstrated that the ring was able to move along the axle. Among his developments based on rotaxanes are a molecular lift, a molecular muscle and a molecule-based computer chip.
Bernard Feringa was the first person to develop a molecular motor; in 1999 he got a molecular rotor blade to spin continually in the same direction. Using molecular motors, he has rotated a glass cylinder that is 10,000 times bigger than the motor and also designed a nanocar.
2016's Nobel Laureates in Chemistry have taken molecular systems out of equilibrium's stalemate and into energy-filled states in which their movements can be controlled. In terms of development, the molecular motor is at the same stage as the electric motor was in the 1830s, when scientists displayed various spinning cranks and wheels, unaware that they would lead to electric trains, washing machines, fans and food processors. Molecular machines will most likely be used in the development of things such as new materials, sensors and energy storage systems.

Read more about this year's prize

Popular Information
Scientific Background

Jean-Pierre Sauvage, born 1944 in Paris, France. Ph.D. 1971 from the University of Strasbourg, France. Professor Emeritus at the University of Strasbourg and Director of Research Emeritus at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), France.
Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, born 1942 in Edinburgh, UK. Ph.D. 1966 from Edinburgh University, UK. Board of Trustees Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.
Bernard L. Feringa, born 1951 in Barger-Compascuum, the Netherlands. Ph.D.1978 from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. Professor in Organic Chemistry at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

Source: "The 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Press Release". Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 5 Oct 2016. <>

The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Yoshinori Ohsumi
”for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”


This year's Nobel Laureate discovered and elucidated mechanisms underlying autophagy, a fundamental process for degrading and recycling cellular components.  
The word autophagy originates from the Greek words auto-, meaning "self", and phagein, meaning "to eat". Thus,autophagy denotes "self eating". This concept emerged during the 1960's, when researchers first observed that the cell could destroy its own contents by enclosing it in membranes, forming sack-like vesicles that were transported to a recycling compartment, called the lysosome, for degradation. Difficulties in studying the phenomenon meant that little was known until, in a series of brilliant experiments in the early 1990's, Yoshinori Ohsumi used baker's yeast to identify genes essential for autophagy. He then went on to elucidate the underlying mechanisms for autophagy in yeast and showed that similar sophisticated machinery is used in our cells.
Ohsumi's discoveries led to a new paradigm in our understanding of how the cell recycles its content. His discoveries opened the path to understanding the fundamental importance of autophagy in many physiological processes, such as in the adaptation to starvation or response to infection. Mutations in autophagy genes can cause disease, and the autophagic process is involved in several conditions including cancer and neurological disease.

Degradation – a central function in all living cells

In the mid 1950's scientists observed a new specialized cellular compartment, called an organelle, containing enzymes that digest proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. This specialized compartment is referred to as a "lysosome" and functions as a workstation for degradation of cellular constituents. The Belgian scientist Christian de Duve was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 for the discovery of the lysosome. New observations during the 1960's showed that large amounts of cellular content, and even whole organelles, could sometimes be found inside lysosomes. The cell therefore appeared to have a strategy for delivering large cargo to the lysosome. Further biochemical and microscopic analysis revealed a new type of vesicle transporting cellular cargo to the lysosome for degradation (Figure 1). Christian de Duve, the scientist behind the discovery of the lysosome, coined the term autophagy, "self-eating", to describe this process. The new vesicles were named autophagosomes.
During the 1970's and 1980's researchers focused on elucidating another system used to degrade proteins, namely the "proteasome". Within this research field Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation". The proteasome efficiently degrades proteins one-by-one, but this mechanism did not explain how the cell got rid of larger protein complexes and worn-out organelles. Could the process of autophagy be the answer and, if so, what were the mechanisms?

A groundbreaking experiment

Yoshinori Ohsumi had been active in various research areas, but upon starting his own lab in 1988, he focused his efforts on protein degradation in the vacuole, an organelle that corresponds to the lysosome in human cells. Yeast cells are relatively easy to study and consequently they are often used as a model for human cells. They are particularly useful for the identification of genes that are important in complex cellular pathways. But Ohsumi faced a major challenge; yeast cells are small and their inner structures are not easily distinguished under the microscope and thus he was uncertain whether autophagy even existed in this organism. Ohsumi reasoned that if he could disrupt the degradation process in the vacuole while the process of autophagy was active, then autophagosomes should accumulate within the vacuole and become visible under the microscope. He therefore cultured mutated yeast lacking vacuolar degradation enzymes and simultaneously stimulated autophagy by starving the cells. The results were striking! Within hours, the vacuoles were filled with small vesicles that had not been degraded (Figure 2). The vesicles were autophagosomes and Ohsumi's experiment proved that authophagy exists in yeast cells. But even more importantly, he now had a method to identify and characterize key genes involved this process. This was a major break-through and Ohsumi published the results in 1992.

Autophagy genes are discovered

Ohsumi now took advantage of his engineered yeast strains in which autophagosomes accumulated during starvation. This accumulation should not occur if genes important for autophagy were inactivated. Ohsumi exposed the yeast cells to a chemical that randomly introduced mutations in many genes, and then he induced autophagy. His strategy worked! Within a year of his discovery of autophagy in yeast, Ohsumi had identified the first genes essential for autophagy. In his subsequent series of elegant studies, the proteins encoded by these genes were functionally characterized. The results showed that autophagy is controlled by a cascade of proteins and protein complexes, each regulating a distinct stage of autophagosome initiation and formation (Figure 3).
Stages of autophagosome formation

Autophagy – an essential mechanism in our cells

After the identification of the machinery for autophagy in yeast, a key question remained. Was there a corresponding mechanism to control this process in other organisms? Soon it became clear that virtually identical mechanisms operate in our own cells. The research tools required to investigate the importance of autophagy in humans were now available.
Thanks to Ohsumi and others following in his footsteps, we now know that autophagy controls important physiological functions where cellular components need to be degraded and recycled. Autophagy can rapidly provide fuel for energy and building blocks for renewal of cellular components, and is therefore essential for the cellular response to starvation and other types of stress. After infection, autophagy can eliminate invading intracellular bacteria and viruses. Autophagy contributes to embryo development and cell differentiation. Cells also use autophagy to eliminate damaged proteins and organelles, a quality control mechanism that is critical for counteracting the negative consequences of aging.
Disrupted autophagy has been linked to Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes and other disorders that appear in the elderly. Mutations in autophagy genes can cause genetic disease. Disturbances in the autophagic machinery have also been linked to cancer. Intense research is now ongoing to develop drugs that can target autophagy in various diseases.
Autophagy has been known for over 50 years but its fundamental importance in physiology and medicine was only recognized after Yoshinori Ohsumi's paradigm-shifting research in the 1990's. For his discoveries, he is awarded this year's Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.

Key publications

Takeshige, K., Baba, M., Tsuboi, S., Noda, T. and Ohsumi, Y. (1992). Autophagy in yeast demonstrated with proteinase-deficient mutants and conditions for its induction. Journal of Cell Biology 119, 301-311
Tsukada, M. and Ohsumi, Y. (1993). Isolation and characterization of autophagy-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cervisiae. FEBS Letters 333, 169-174
Mizushima, N., Noda, T., Yoshimori, T., Tanaka, Y., Ishii, T., George, M.D., Klionsky, D.J., Ohsumi, M. and Ohsumi, Y. (1998). A protein conjugation system essential for autophagy. Nature 395, 395-398
Ichimura, Y., Kirisako T., Takao, T., Satomi, Y., Shimonishi, Y., Ishihara, N., Mizushima, N., Tanida, I., Kominami, E., Ohsumi, M., Noda, T. and Ohsumi, Y. (2000). A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation. Nature, 408, 488-492

Yoshinori Ohsumi was born 1945 in Fukuoka, Japan. He received a Ph.D. from University of Tokyo in 1974. After spending three years at Rockefeller University, New York, USA, he returned to the University of Tokyo where he established his research group in 1988. He is since 2009 a professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology.
Source: "The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Press Release". Media AB 2014. Web. 4 Oct 2016. <>




Tuesday, October 4, 2016

The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 with one half to

David J. Thouless
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
and the other half to
F. Duncan M. Haldane
Princeton University, NJ, USA
J. Michael Kosterlitz
Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

They revealed the secrets of exotic matter

This year’s Laureates opened the door on an unknown world where matter can assume strange states. They have used advanced mathematical methods to study unusual phases, or states, of matter, such as superconductors, superfluids or thin magnetic films. Thanks to their pioneering work, the hunt is now on for new and exotic phases of matter. Many people are hopeful of future applications in both materials science and electronics.
The three Laureates’ use of topological concepts in physics was decisive for their discoveries. Topology is a branch of mathematics that describes properties that only change step-wise. Using topology as a tool, they were able to astound the experts. In the early 1970s, Michael Kosterlitz and David Thouless overturned the then current theory that superconductivity or suprafluidity could not occur in thin layers. They demonstrated that superconductivity could occur at low temperatures and also explained the mechanism, phase transition, that makes superconductivity disappear at higher temperatures.
In the 1980s, Thouless was able to explain a previous experiment with very thin electrically conducting layers in which conductance was precisely measured as integer steps. He showed that these integers were topological in their nature. At around the same time, Duncan Haldane discovered how topological concepts can be used to understand the properties of chains of small magnets found in some materials.
We now know of many topological phases, not only in thin layers and threads, but also in ordinary three-dimensional materials. Over the last decade, this area has boosted frontline research in condensed matter physics, not least because of the hope that topological materials could be used in new generations of electronics and superconductors, or in future quantum computers. Current research is revealing the secrets of matter in the exotic worlds discovered by this year’s Nobel Laureates.

Read more about this year's prize

Popular Science Background

Scientific Background

Image - Phases of matter (pdf 900 kB)

Image - Phase transition (pdf 622 kB)

Image - Topology (pdf 417 kB)

David J. Thouless, born 1934 in Bearsden, UK. Ph.D. 1958 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Emeritus Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

F. Duncan M. Haldane, born 1951 in London, UK. Ph.D. 1978 from Cambridge University, UK. Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics at Princeton University, NJ, USA.

J. Michael Kosterlitz, born 1942 in Aberdeen, UK. Ph.D. 1969 from Oxford University, UK. Harrison E. Farnsworth Professor of Physics at Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Prize amount: 8 million Swedish krona, with one half to David Thouless and the other half to be shared between Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz.

Further information: and